Papers in Refereed Journals


Religion and Growth,
(with Jared Rubin and Ludger Woessmann), 2024, Journal of Economic Literature 62(3): XXX-YYY.

Persecution and Escape: Professional Networks and High-Skilled Emigration from Nazi Germany,
(with Volker Lindenthal, Sharun Mukand and Fabian Waldinger), 2024 American Economic Journal: Applied Economics 16(3): 1-45.

Open access: Persecution, Pogroms and Genocide: A Conceptual Framework and New Evidence,
(with Sharun Mukand and Ivan Yotzov), 2022, Explorations in Economic History 86, article 101471. Lead article.

Open access: Entrepreneur Death and Startup Performance,
(with Hans K. Hvide), 2022, Review of Finance 26(1): 163-185.

Open access: Forced displacement in history: Some recent research, 2022,
Australian Economic History Review 62(1): 2-25. Lead article.

Open access: More choice for men? Marriage patterns after World War II in Italy
(with Erich Battistin and Luca Nunziata), 2022, Journal of Demographic Economics 88(3): 447-472.

Open access: The Impact of Public Employment: Evidence from Bonn
(with Stephan Heblich, and Daniel Sturm), 2021, Journal of Urban Economics 122, article 103291.

Jesus speaks Korean: Christianity and Literacy in Colonial Korea
(with Cheongyeon Won), 2021, Rivista di Storia Economica, 37(1), 7-32, special issue in memory of Carlo Cipolla's (1969) "Literacy and Development"

Open access: The Political Economy of the Prussian Three-class Franchise
(with Erik Hornung), 2020, Journal of Economic History, 80(4): 1143-1188.

Open access: Multiplex Network Ties and the Spatial Diffusion of Radical Innovations: Martin Luther's Leadership in the Early Reformation
(with Yuan Hsiao, Steven Pfaff and Jared Rubin), 2020, American Sociological Review, 85(5): 857-894.

Open access: Prussia Disaggregated: The Demography of its Universe of Localities in 1871
(with Francesco Cinnirella), 2020, Journal of Demographic Economics, 86(3): 259-290.

Forced Migration and Human Capital: Evidence from Post-WWII Population Transfers
(with Irena Grosfeld, Pauline Grosjean, Nico Voigtlaender, and Ekaterina Zhuravskaya), 2020, American Economic Review, 110(5): 1430-1463.

Open access: The Separation and Reunification of Germany: Rethinking a Natural Experiment Interpretation of the Enduring Effects of Communism
(with Lukas Mergele and Ludger Woessmann), 2020, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 34(2): 143-171.

Open access: Discrimination in Hiring Based on Potential and Realized Fertility: Evidence from a Large-Scale Field Experiment
(with Ana Fernandes and Doris Weichselbaumer), 2019, Labour Economics, 59, 139-152.

Open access: Consequences of forced migration: A survey of recent findings
(with Andreas Ferrara), 2019, Labour Economics, 59, 1-16.

Religion, Division of Labor and Conflict: Anti-Semitism in Germany over 600 Years
(with Luigi Pascali), 2019, American Economic Review, 109(5): 1764-1804.

Open access: Who Voted for Brexit? Individual and Regional Data Combined
(with Eleonora Alabrese, Thiemo Fetzer and Dennis Novy), 2019, European Journal of Political Economy, 56: 132-150.

Open access: Social Cohesion, Religious Beliefs, and the Effect of Protestantism on Suicide
(with Ludger Woessmann), 2018, Review of Economics and Statistics 100(3): 377-391. Lead article.

Open access: Effects of EU Regional Policy: 1989-2013
(with Peter H. Egger and Maximilian von Ehrlich), 2018, Regional Science and Urban Economics, 69: 143-152.

Open access: Who Voted for Brexit? A Comprehensive District-Level Analysis
(with Thiemo Fetzer and Dennis Novy), 2017, Economic Policy 32(92): 601-650. Editor's Choice.

Open access: Education and Religious Participation: City-Level Evidence from Germany's Secularization Period 1890-1930
(with Markus Nagler and Ludger Woessmann), 2017, Journal of Economic Growth 22(3): 273-311.

Causes and Consequences of the Protestant Reformation
(with Jared C. Rubin and Steve Pfaff), 2016, Explorations in Economic History 62: 1-25. Lead article.

The Empire Is Dead, Long Live the Empire! Long-Run Persistence of Trust and Corruption in the Bureaucracy
(with Katrin Boeckh, Christa Hainz, Ludger Woessmann), 2016, The Economic Journal 126(590): 40-74.

Trade and Tasks: An Exploration over Three Decades in Germany
(with Marc-Andreas Muendler), 2015, Economic Policy 30(84): 589-641.

Not the Opium of the People -- Income and Secularization in a Panel of Prussian Counties
(with Ludger Woessmann), 2013, American Economic Review: Papers and Proceedings 103(3): 539-544.

Absorptive Capacity and the Growth Effects of Regional Transfers: A Regression Discontinuity Design with Heterogeneous Treatment Effects
(with Peter H. Egger and Maximilian von Ehrlich), 2013, American Economic Journal: Economic Policy 5(4): 29-77.

Offshoring and the Onshore Composition of Tasks and Skills
(with Karolina Ekholm and Marc-Andreas Muendler), 2013, Journal of International Economics 90(1): 91-106.

A Gift is not Always a Gift: Gift Exchange in a Voucher Experiment
(with Dolores Messer and Stefan C. Wolter), 2013, Economica 80(318): 345-371.

Does Women's Education Affect Fertility? Evidence from Pre-Demographic Transition Prussia
(with Francesco Cinnirella and Ludger Woessmann), 2013, European Review of Economic History 17(1): 24-44.

Endogenous Product versus Process Innovation and a Firm's Propensity to Export
(with Peter H. Egger), 2013, Empirical Economics 44(1): 329-354.

How low business tax rates attract MNE activity: Municipality-level evidence from Germany
(with Peter H. Egger, and Valeria Merlo), 2012, Journal of Public Economics 96(9-10): 698-711.

Too much of a good thing? On the growth effects of the EU's regional policy
(with Peter H. Egger and Maximilian von Ehrlich), 2012, European Economic Review 56(4): 648-668.

The Effect of Investment in Children's Education on Fertility in 1816 Prussia
(with Francesco Cinnirella and Ludger Woessmann), 2012, Cliometrica 6(1): 29-44.

Education and Catch-up in the Industrial Revolution
(with Erik Hornung and Ludger Woessmann), 2011, American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics 3(3): 92-126.

Margins of Multinational Labor Substitution
(with Marc-Andreas Muendler), 2010, American Economic Review 100(5): 1999-2030.

Going NUTS: The Effect of EU Structural Funds on Regional Performance
(with Peter H. Egger, Max von Ehrlich), 2010, Journal of Public Economics 94(9-10): 578-590.

Education versus Fertility: Evidence from before the Demographic Transition
(with Francesco Cinnirella and Ludger Woessmann), 2010, Journal of Economic Growth 15(3): 177-204.
Lead article

Equity Fund Ownership and the Cross-Regional Diversification of Household Risk
(with Mathias Hoffmann), 2010, Journal of Banking and Finance 34(1): 90-102.

The Effect of Protestantism on Education before the Industrialization: Evidence from 1816 Prussia
(with Ludger Woessmann), 2010, Economics Letters 107(2): 224-228.

Youth Emancipation and Perceived Job Insecurity of Parents and Children
(with Samuel Bentolila, Ana Fernandes and Andrea Ichino), 2010, Journal of Population Economics 23(3): 1047-1071 (corrected page number).

Was Weber Wrong? A Human Capital Theory of Protestant Economic History
(with Ludger Woessmann), 2009, The Quarterly Journal of Economics 124(2): 531-596.
Awarded the year 2010 'Prize for Academic Research' by the Friends of the Ifo Institute

Common political culture: Evidence on regional corruption contagion
(with Peter H. Egger and Tobias Seidel), 2009, European Journal of Political Economy 24(3): 300-310.

Beschäftigungseffekte von Produkt- und Prozessinnovationen bei Exporteuren und Nicht-Exporteuren,
(with Peter H. Egger), 2009, AStA: Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv 3(2): 123-136.

Luther and the Girls: Religious Denomination and the Female Education Gap in 19th Century Prussia
(with Ludger Woessmann), 2008, Scandinavian Journal of Economics 110(4): 777-805.

The Effect of FDI on Job Security
(with Marc-Andreas Muendler), 2008, The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis and Policy 8(1) (Advances), Article 8.

Income Insecurity and Youth Emancipation: A Theoretical Approach
(with Samuel Bentolila, Ana Fernandes and Andrea Ichino), 2008, The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis and Policy 8(1) (Contributions), Article 19.

Sensitivity Analysis for Average Treatment Effects,
(with Marco Caliendo), 2007, The Stata Journal 7(1): 71-83.

Intra-and International Risk-Sharing in the Short Run and the Long Run
(with Mathias Hoffmann), 2006, European Economic Review 50(3): 777-806.

Introducing Time-to-Educate in a Job Search Model, 2006,
Bulletin of Economic Research 58(1): 61-72.

Location Choice and Employment Decisions: A Comparison of German and Swedish Multinationals
(with Karolina Ekholm, Robert Jaeckle and Marc-Andreas Muendler), 2005, Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv) 141(4): 693-731.

How Large is the "Brain Drain" from Italy?
(with Andrea Ichino and Giovanni Peri), 2004, Giornale degli Economisti e Annali di Economia 63(1): 1-32. Lead article

Estimation of average treatment effects based on propensity scores
(with Andrea Ichino), 2002, The Stata Journal 2(4): 358-377.

Stata updates/extensions reported in The Stata Journal 4(2): 224-225, Software updates.


Using Instrumental Variables to establish causality, 2016, IZA World of Labor Article 250.

iPEHD - The ifo Prussian Economic History Database,
(with Francesco Cinnirella, Erik Hornung and Ludger Woessmann), 2014, Historical Methods 47(2): 57-66.
Lead article

Micro Data at the Ifo Institute for Economic Research : The "Ifo Business Survey", Usage and Access
(with Klaus Wohlrabe), 2008, Journal of Contextual Economics - Schmollers Jahrbuch 128(2): 307-319.

Mikrodaten im ifo Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung: Bestand, Verwendung und Zugang,
(with Klaus Abberger, Barbara Hofmann, and Klaus Wohlrabe), 2007, AStA: Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv 1(1): 1-20.

80 Jahre Millssche Verhältniszahl (Mills' ratio), 1926-2006, 2006, Wirtschaftswissenschaftliches Studium (WiSt) 35(1): 43-45.


Clouds at sunset in the Anza-Borrego Desert State Park, California, US, 2007,
International Journal of Meteorology 32(320): photo on central double page.

Working Papers

Recent Working Papers

Wars, Taxation and Representation: Evidence from Five Centuries of German History (with Andreas Ferrara, Eric Melander and Luigi Pascali), CEPR Discussion Paper 15601, Revise and Resubmit at the Journal of the European Economic Association.

Competing Social Influence in Contested Diffusion: Luther, Erasmus and the Spread of the Protestant Reformation (with Yuan Hsiao, Jared Rubin, and Steven Pfaff), Working Paper 23-03, Chapman University.

Freedom of the Press? Catholic Censorship during the Counter-Reformation (with Francisco J. Pino and Jordi Vidal-Robert), CEPR Discussion Paper 16092.

Why an EU Referendum? Why in 2016? (with Thiemo Fetzer), CAGE Working Paper 366/2018.

Does Migration Cause Extreme Voting?
(with Thiemo Fetzer), CAGE Working Paper 306/2016.

OLD working papers (on demand)

Schooling Infrastructure, Educational Attainment and Earnings
(with Frank Siebern-Thomas, European Commission).

The Costs of Displacement in Germany - A Study Based on the German Socioeconomic Panel

Why Don't Italians Finish University? - Explaining University Enrollment Behavior in Italy and Germany

Books, Book Chapters and Comments


Produktionen flyttar utomlands: Om offshoring och arbetsmarknaden (with Karolina Ekholm and Katariina Nilsson Hakkala), 2011, SNS Förlag, Stockholm, 107 pages.

Book Chapters

Religion in Economic History: A Survey (with Jared Rubin and Ludger Woessmann), 2021, In: Bisin, Alberto and Giovanni Federico (eds.) Handbook of Historical Economics, Chapter 20, Elsevier. Whole Handbook.

Religious Persecutions (with Luigi Pascali), 2022, in: Zimmermann, Klaus F. (ed.) Handbook of Labor, Human Resources and Population Economics, Springer Nature.

How Luther's Quest for Education Changed German Economic History: 9+5 Theses on the Effects of the Protestant Reformation (with Ludger Woessmann), in: Carvalho, Jean-Paul, Iyer, Sriya, Rubin, Jared (eds.) Advances in the Economics of Religion, Palgrave, International Economic Association Series.

Education and Human Capital, in: Matthias Blum and Christopher L. Colvin (eds.) An Economist's Guide to Economic History, MacMillan Publishers.

Institutions and convergence in Europe: The case of Structural Funds (with Peter H. Egger and Maximilian von Ehrlich), in: Nauro Campos and Jan-Egbert Sturm (eds.) Bretton Woods, Brussels, and Beyond -- Redesigning the Institutions of Europe, VoxEU eBook, CEPR, 2018, Chapter 8.

EU Regional Policy and the UK (with Peter H. Egger and Maximilian von Ehrlich), in: Nauro Campos and Fabrizio Coricelli (eds.) The Economics of UK-EU Relations - From the Treaty of Rome to the Vote for Brexit, Springer, 2017.

Is the Brexit vote disconnected from the European Union?" (with Thiemo Fetzer and Dennis Novy), in: Thorsten Beck and Geoffrey Underhill (eds.) Quo Vadis? Identity, policy and the future of the European Union, VoxEU eBook, CEPR, 2017, Chapter 6.

The Protestant Reformation's impact in Europe (with Jared Rubin), in: Stelios Michalopoulos and Elias Papaioannou (eds.), The Long Economic and Political Shadow of History, VoxEU eBook, CEPR, 2017, Volume 3, Chapter 8.

Economics has nothing to do with religion, in: Bruno Frey and David Iselin (eds.). Economic Ideas You Should Forget , Springer, 2017.

EU Regional Policy (with Peter H. Egger and Maximilian von Ehrlich), in: Harald Badinger and Volker Nitsch (eds.). Handbook of the Economics of European Integration, Chapter 17, Routledge, 2016.

Zurueck zu den Wurzeln: Deutschland als Weltmarktfuehrer in Sachen Bildung (with Ludger Woessmann), in: Kai A. Konrad, Ronnie Schoeb, Marcel Thum, Alfons Weichenrieder (eds.) Die Zukunft der Wohlfahrtsgesellschaft: Festschrift fuer Hans-Werner Sinn, Campus Verlag, 2013.

The Effects of the Protestant Reformation on Human Capital (with Ludger Woessmann) in: Rachel McCleary (ed.) The Oxford Handbook of the Economics of Religion , 2011.

Job Creation Abroad and Worker Retention at Home (with Marc-Andreas Muendler) in: Stefan Bender, Julia Lane, Kathryn Shaw, Fredrik Andersson and Till von Wachter (eds.) The Analysis of Firms and Employees: Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches, NBER, University of Chicago Press, 2008.


Discussion of Pierre Regibeau and Katharine E. Rockett: Research assessment and recognized excellence: simple bibliometrics for more efficient academic research evaluations, in: Economic Policy 31(88), 2016.

Discussion of Adriana Di Liberto, Fabiano Schivardi and Giovanni Sulis: Managerial practices and student performance, in: Economic Policy 30(84), 2015.

Discussion of Martin Brown and Helmut Stix: The euroization of bank deposits in Eastern Europe, in: Economic Policy 30(81), 2015.

Discussion of Herbert Bruecker, Simone Bertoli, Giovanni Facchini, Anna Maria Mayda, and Giovanni Peri: Understanding Highly Skilled Migration in Developed Countries: The Upcoming Battle for Brains, in: Tito Boeri, Herbert Bruecker, Frederic Docquier, and Hillel Rapoport (eds.) Brain Drain and Brain Gain - The Global Competition to Attract High-Skilled Migrants, Oxford University Press, 2012.

Discussion of Ramón Gómez-Salvador, Julian Messina and Giovanna Vallanti, Gross Job Flows and Institutions in Europe: a Sectoral Approach/Perspective, Julián Messina, Claudio Michelacci, Jarkko Turunen and Gylfi Zoega (eds.) Labour Market Adjustments in Europe, London: Edward Elgar, 2006: 184-186.

Comment on Ben J. Heijdra, Christian Keuschnigg, and Wilhelm Kohler, Eastern Enlargement of the EU: Jobs, Investment and Welfare in Present Member Countries in Helge Berger and Thomas Moutos (eds.) Managing EU Enlargement, p. 211-215. Cambridge, MA; MIT Press, 2004.


In English

The Global COVID-19 Student Survey: First Wave Results (with Jaeger, David A., Jaime Arellano-Bover, Krzysztof Karbownik, Marta Martinez-Matute, John Nunley, R. Alan Seals, Miguel Almunia, Mackenzie Alston, Sascha O. Becker, Pilar Beneito, Rene Böheim, Jose E. Bosca, Jessica H. Brown, Simon Chang, Deborah Cobb-Clark, Shooshan Danagoulian, Sandra Donnally, Marissa Eckrote-Nordland, Lidia Farre Javier Ferri, Margherita Fort, Jane Cooley Fruewirth, Rebecca Gelding, Allen C. Goodman, Melanie Guldi, Simone Häckl, Janet Hankin, Scott Imberman, Joanna Lahey, Joan Llull, Hani Mansour, Isaac McFarlin, Jaakko Meriläinen, Tove Mortlund, Martin Nybom, Stephen D. OConnell, Rupert Sausgruber, Amy Ellen Schwarz, Jan Stuhler, Petra Thiemann, Roel van Veldhuizen, Marianne Wannamaker, and Maria Zhu), Covid Economics 79: 152-217.

Long-Term Consequences of Forced Displacement: Three Salient Themes (inaugural) Quarterly Digest on Forced Displacement. Washington, D.C.: World Bank Group.

EU Structural Funds: Do They Generate More Growth?, The CAGE-Chatham House Series, 2012, No. 3.

Home Labor Market Effects of Outward Foreign Direct Investment, Applied Economics Quarterly Supplement, 2005.

Employment Pacts in Italy 1992-2002, DICE Report - Journal for Institutional Comparisons, Vol. 2, no.1, 2004.

In German

Was sind die tiefliegenden Faktoren hinter dem Brexit-Referendum?,
(with Thiemo Fetzer and Dennis Novy), ifo Schnelldienst, no. 12, 2017, 9-12.

Wie das Habsburger Reich heute in den osteuropäischen Verwaltungen sichtbar ist,
(with Katrin Boeckh, Christa Hainz, Ludger Woessmann), ifo Schnelldienst, 12/2011, 20-23.

Gerechtigkeit und Effizienz nachgelagerter Studiengebühren,
(with Robert Fenge), ifo Schnelldienst, no.2, 2005, 16-22.

Kehren deutsche Firmen ihrer Heimat den Rücken? - Ein Bericht über Ausländische Direktinvestitionen deutscher Unternehmen,
(with Robert Jäckle and Marc-Andreas Muendler), ifo Schnelldienst, no.1, 2005, 23-33.

In Spanish

Fragmentación Internacional de la Producción. Cuáles son sus Efectos en el Mercado Laboral ?,
(with Karolina Ekholm), Integration and Trade, 2011, Vol. 15(32) January-June 2011.